[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]
OPEN ACCESS / PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE
Vector competence of biting midges and mosquitoes for Shuni virus
Tim W. R. Möhlmann , Judith Oymans, Paul J. Wichgers Schreur, Constantianus J. M. Koenraadt, Jeroen Kortekaas, Chantal B. F. Vogels
Published: December 7, 2018 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006993
Shuni virus (SHUV) is an orthobunyavirus that belongs to the Simbu serogroup. SHUV was isolated from diverse species of domesticated animals and wildlife, and is associated with neurological disease, abortions, and congenital malformations. Recently, SHUV caused outbreaks among ruminants in Israel, representing the first incursions outside the African continent. The isolation of SHUV from a febrile child in Nigeria and seroprevalence among veterinarians in South Africa suggests that the virus may have zoonotic potential as well. The high pathogenicity, extremely broad tropism, potential transmission via both biting midges and mosquitoes, and zoonotic features warrants prioritization of SHUV for further research. Additional knowledge is essential to accurately determine the risk for animal and human health, and to assess the risk of future epizootics and epidemics. To gain first insights into the potential involvement of arthropod vectors in SHUV transmission, we have investigated the ability of SHUV to infect and disseminate in laboratory-reared biting midges and mosquitoes.
Culicoides nubeculosus, C. sonorensis, Culex pipiens pipiens, and Aedes aegypti were orally exposed to SHUV by providing an infectious blood meal. Biting midges showed high infection rates of approximately 40–60%, whereas infection rates of mosquitoes were lower than 2%. SHUV successfully disseminated in both species of biting midges, but no evidence of transmission in orally exposed mosquitoes was found.
The results of this study show that different species of Culicoides biting midges are susceptible to infection and dissemination of SHUV, whereas the two mosquito species tested were found not to be susceptible.
Arthropod-borne (arbo)viruses are notorious for causing unpredictable and large-scale epidemics and epizootics. Apart from viruses such as West Nile virus and Rift Valley fever virus that are well known to have a significant impact on human and animal health, many arboviruses remain neglected. Shuni virus (SHUV) is a neglected virus with zoonotic potential that was recently associated with severe disease in livestock and wildlife. Isolations of SHUV from field-collected biting midges and mosquitoes suggests that SHUV may be transmitted by these insects. Laboratory-reared biting midge species (Culicoides nubeculosus and C. sonorensis) and mosquito species (Culex pipiens pipiens and Aedes aegypti), that are known to transmit other arboviruses, were exposed to SHUV via an infectious blood meal. SHUV was able to successfully disseminate in both biting midge species, whereas no evidence of infection or transmission in both mosquito species was found. Our results show that SHUV infects and disseminates in two different Culicoides species, suggesting that these insects could play an important role in the disease transmission cycle.
Citation: Möhlmann TWR, Oymans J, Wichgers Schreur PJ, Koenraadt CJM, Kortekaas J, Vogels CBF (2018) Vector competence of biting midges and mosquitoes for Shuni virus. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 12(12): e0006993. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006993
Editor: Hans-Peter Fuehrer, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, AUSTRIA
Received: June 19, 2018; Accepted: November 12, 2018; Published: December 7, 2018
Copyright: © 2018 Möhlmann et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper.
Funding: TWRM, CJMK, and CBFV received funding from the Global One Health strategic programme of Wageningen University and Research, and JO, PJWS, and JK received funding from the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality; project WOT-01-001-033. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Keywords: Orthobunyavirus; Arbovirus; Shuni Virus; Midges; Mosquitoes.