Mapping the #burden of #cholera in #subSaharan #Africa and implications for control: an analysis of data across geographical scales (Lancet, abstract)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Mapping the burden of cholera in sub-Saharan Africa and implications for control: an analysis of data across geographical scales

Justin Lessler, PhD†, , Sean M Moore, PhD†, Francisco J Luquero, PhD, Heather S McKay, PhD, Rebecca Grais, PhD, Myriam Henkens, MD, Martin Mengel, MD, Jessica Dunoyer, MSc, Maurice M’bangombe, MSc, Elizabeth C Lee, PhD, Mamoudou Harouna Djingarey, MD, Bertrand Sudre, MD, Didier Bompangue, MD, Robert S M Fraser, BMeEng, Abdinasir Abubakar, MD, William Perea, MD, Dominique Legros, MD, Andrew S Azman, PhD

†Contributed equally

Published: 01 March 2018 / Open Access  / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)33050-7

© 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

 

Summary

Background

Cholera remains a persistent health problem in sub-Saharan Africa and worldwide. Cholera can be controlled through appropriate water and sanitation, or by oral cholera vaccination, which provides transient (∼3 years) protection, although vaccine supplies remain scarce. We aimed to map cholera burden in sub-Saharan Africa and assess how geographical targeting could lead to more efficient interventions.

Methods

We combined information on cholera incidence in sub-Saharan Africa (excluding Djibouti and Eritrea) from 2010 to 2016 from datasets from WHO, Médecins Sans Frontières, ProMED, ReliefWeb, ministries of health, and the scientific literature. We divided the study region into 20 km × 20 km grid cells and modelled annual cholera incidence in each grid cell assuming a Poisson process adjusted for covariates and spatially correlated random effects. We combined these findings with data on population distribution to estimate the number of people living in areas of high cholera incidence (>1 case per 1000 people per year). We further estimated the reduction in cholera incidence that could be achieved by targeting cholera prevention and control interventions at areas of high cholera incidence.

Findings

We included 279 datasets covering 2283 locations in our analyses. In sub-Saharan Africa (excluding Djibouti and Eritrea), a mean of 141 918 cholera cases (95% credible interval [CrI] 141 538–146 505) were reported per year. 4·0% (95% CrI 1·7–16·8) of districts, home to 87·2 million people (95% CrI 60·3 million to 118·9 million), have high cholera incidence. By focusing on the highest incidence districts first, effective targeted interventions could eliminate 50% of the region’s cholera by covering 35·3 million people (95% CrI 26·3 million to 62·0 million), which is less than 4% of the total population.

Interpretation

Although cholera occurs throughout sub-Saharan Africa, its highest incidence is concentrated in a small proportion of the continent. Prioritising high-risk areas could substantially increase the efficiency of cholera control programmes.

Funding

The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Keywords: Cholera; Africa Region.

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Giuseppe Michieli

I am an Italian blogger, active since 2005 with main focus on emerging infectious diseases such as avian influenza, SARS, antibiotics resistance, and many other global Health issues. Other fields of interest are: climate change, global warming, geological and biological sciences. My activity consists mainly in collection and analysis of news, public services updates, confronting sources and making decision about what are the 'signals' of an impending crisis (an outbreak, for example). When a signal is detected, I follow traces during the entire course of an event. I started in 2005 my blog ''A TIME'S MEMORY'', now with more than 40,000 posts and 3 millions of web interactions. Subsequently I added an Italian Language blog, then discontinued because of very low traffic and interest. I contributed for seven years to a public forum (FluTrackers.com) in the midst of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014, I left the site to continue alone my data tracking job.