#Plasmid-encoded #colistin #resistance: #mcr-one, two, three and counting (@eurosurveillanc, summary)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Eurosurveillance, Volume 22, Issue 31, 03 August 2017 / Editorial

Plasmid-encoded colistin resistance: mcr-one, two, three and counting

J Kluytmans 1

Author affiliations: 1. Amphia Hospital Breda and University Medical Centre Utrecht

Correspondence: Jan Kluytmans (jankluytmans@gmail.com)

Citation style for this article: Kluytmans J. Plasmid-encoded colistin resistance: mcr-one, two, three and counting. Euro Surveill. 2017;22(31):pii=30588. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2017.22.31.30588

Received:20 July 2017; Accepted:20 July 2017



In November 2015, the first description of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance (mcr-1 gene) was reported from China in food animals, food and humans [1]. Many reports from all over the world have followed since. The reported rates vary considerably, ranging from sporadic findings up to 67% in Escherichia coli isolates from Tunisian chicken [2]. However, the rates have been consistently higher in livestock than in humans. This points to a reservoir in animals with spill over to humans. Until recently, colistin use in humans has been limited but it has been used extensively in veterinary medicine for decades, both as curative treatment and for prevention of disease [3]. The amount of use in livestock varies enormously. In Europe, for example, in 2013, the annual colistin sales in some countries exceeded 20 mg per population corrected unit (PCU) while in other countries the sales were below 1 mg/PCU. Following the detection of mcr-1, the European Medicines Agency updated their advice on the use of colistin in humans and animals [3] with the aim of reducing the use in animals by 65% in the coming years. Quantitative targets of 5 mg/PCU and 1 mg/PCU have been set for a reduction in high and medium consuming countries, respectively.


Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Colistin; MCR1; MCR3.


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Giuseppe Michieli

I am an Italian blogger, active since 2005 with main focus on emerging infectious diseases such as avian influenza, SARS, antibiotics resistance, and many other global Health issues. Other fields of interest are: climate change, global warming, geological and biological sciences. My activity consists mainly in collection and analysis of news, public services updates, confronting sources and making decision about what are the 'signals' of an impending crisis (an outbreak, for example). When a signal is detected, I follow traces during the entire course of an event. I started in 2005 my blog ''A TIME'S MEMORY'', now with more than 40,000 posts and 3 millions of web interactions. Subsequently I added an Italian Language blog, then discontinued because of very low traffic and interest. I contributed for seven years to a public forum (FluTrackers.com) in the midst of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014, I left the site to continue alone my data tracking job.