#Genesis, #Evolution and #Prevalence of #H5N6 #Avian #Influenza Viruses in #China (Cell Host Microbe, abstract)

[Source: Cell Host & Microbe, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Genesis, Evolution and Prevalence of H5N6 Avian Influenza Viruses in China

Yuhai Bi21, Quanjiao Chen21, Qianli Wang21, Jianjun Chen21, Tao Jin, Gary Wong, Chuansong Quan, Jun Liu, Jun Wu, Renfu Yin, Lihua Zhao, Mingxin Li, Zhuang Ding, Rongrong Zou, Wen Xu, Hong Li, Huijun Wang, Kegong Tian, Guanghua Fu, Yu Huang, Alexander Shestopalov, Shoujun Li, Bing Xu, Hongjie Yu, Tingrong Luo, Lin Lu, Xun Xu, Yang Luo, Yingxia Liu, Weifeng Shi, Di Liu, George Fu Gao22,

21 Co-first author

22 Lead Contact

Publication stage: In Press Corrected Proof / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2016.10.022

Publication History: Published: December 1, 2016 – Accepted: October 28, 2016 – Received in revised form: September 27, 2016 – Received: August 8, 2016



  • Live poultry markets in China surveyed for avian influenza viruses during 2014–2016
  • H5N6 has replaced H5N1 as a dominant AIV subtype in southern China, especially in ducks
  • The HA and NA genes of H5N6 show apparent lineage-specific matching patterns
  • At least 34 distinct H5N6 genotypes noted, one responsible for five human infections



Constant surveillance of live poultry markets (LPMs) is currently the best way to predict and identify emerging avian influenza viruses (AIVs) that pose a potential threat to public health. Through surveillance of LPMs from 16 provinces and municipalities in China during 2014–2016, we identified 3,174 AIV-positive samples and isolated and sequenced 1,135 AIVs covering 31 subtypes. Our analysis shows that H5N6 has replaced H5N1 as one of the dominant AIV subtypes in southern China, especially in ducks. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that H5N6 arose from reassortments of H5 and H6N6 viruses, with the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase combinations being strongly lineage specific. H5N6 viruses constitute at least 34 distinct genotypes derived from various evolutionary pathways. Notably, genotype G1.2 virus, with internal genes from the chicken H9N2/H7N9 gene pool, was responsible for at least five human H5N6 infections. Our findings highlight H5N6 AIVs as potential threats to public health and agriculture.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; China; Human; Poultry; H5N6; H9N2; H7N9; Reassortant Strains.


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Giuseppe Michieli

I am an Italian blogger, active since 2005 with main focus on emerging infectious diseases such as avian influenza, SARS, antibiotics resistance, and many other global Health issues. Other fields of interest are: climate change, global warming, geological and biological sciences. My activity consists mainly in collection and analysis of news, public services updates, confronting sources and making decision about what are the 'signals' of an impending crisis (an outbreak, for example). When a signal is detected, I follow traces during the entire course of an event. I started in 2005 my blog ''A TIME'S MEMORY'', now with more than 40,000 posts and 3 millions of web interactions. Subsequently I added an Italian Language blog, then discontinued because of very low traffic and interest. I contributed for seven years to a public forum (FluTrackers.com) in the midst of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014, I left the site to continue alone my data tracking job.