#ESBL and #Antibiogram in #Enterobacteriaceae from #Clinical and #DrinkingWater Sources from Bahir Dar City, #Ethiopia (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Extended-Spectrum beta (β)-Lactamases and Antibiogram in Enterobacteriaceae from Clinical and Drinking Water Sources from Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia

Bayeh Abera , Mulugeta Kibret, Wondemagegn Mulu

Published: November 15, 2016 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166519




The spread of Extended-Spectrum beta (β)-Lactamases (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae has become a serious global problem. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae vary based on differences in antibiotic use, nature of patients and hospital settings. This study was aimed at determining ESBL and antibiogram in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from clinical and drinking water sources in Bahir Dar City, Northwest Ethiopia.


Enterobacteriaceae species were isolated from clinical materials and tap water using standard culturing procedures from September 2013 to March 2015. ESBL-producing-Enterobacteriaceae were detected using double-disk method by E-test Cefotaxim/cefotaxim+ clavulanic acid and Ceftazidime/ceftazidime+ clavulanic acid (BioMerieux SA, France) on Mueller Hinton agar (Oxoid, UK).


Overall, 274 Enterobacteriaceae were isolated. Of these, 210 (44%) were from patients and 64 (17.1%) were from drinking water. The median age of the patients was 28 years. Urinary tract infection and blood stream infection accounted for 60% and 21.9% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates, respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from 9 (75%) of neonatal sepsis. The overall prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in clinical and drinking water samples were 57.6% and 9.4%, respectively. The predominant ESBL-producers were K. pneumoniae 34 (69.4%) and Escherichia coli 71 (58.2%). Statistically significant associations were noted between ESBL-producing and non- producing Enterobacteriaceae with regard to age of patients, infected body sites and patient settings (P = 0.001). ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae showed higher levels of resistance against chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and cotrimoxazole than non-ESBL producers (P = 0.001)


ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae coupled with high levels of other antimicrobials become a major concern for treatment of patients with invasive infections such as blood stream infections, neonatal sepsis and urinary tract infections. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were also detected in drinking water sources.


Citation: Abera B, Kibret M, Mulu W (2016) Extended-Spectrum beta (β)-Lactamases and Antibiogram in Enterobacteriaceae from Clinical and Drinking Water Sources from Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. PLoS ONE 11(11): e0166519. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0166519

Editor: Martyn Kirk, Australian National University, AUSTRALIA

Received: April 4, 2016; Accepted: October 31, 2016; Published: November 15, 2016

Copyright: © 2016 Abera et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: In the manuscript.

Funding: The authors cordially acknowledge the Biotechnology Research Institute of Bahir University for the financial support on grant number 1/339/1.11.10.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Enterobacteriaceae; Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Ethiopia.


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Giuseppe Michieli

I am an Italian blogger, active since 2005 with main focus on emerging infectious diseases such as avian influenza, SARS, antibiotics resistance, and many other global Health issues. Other fields of interest are: climate change, global warming, geological and biological sciences. My activity consists mainly in collection and analysis of news, public services updates, confronting sources and making decision about what are the 'signals' of an impending crisis (an outbreak, for example). When a signal is detected, I follow traces during the entire course of an event. I started in 2005 my blog ''A TIME'S MEMORY'', now with more than 40,000 posts and 3 millions of web interactions. Subsequently I added an Italian Language blog, then discontinued because of very low traffic and interest. I contributed for seven years to a public forum (FluTrackers.com) in the midst of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014, I left the site to continue alone my data tracking job.