#Isolation of #H5N6, #H7N9 and #H9N2 #avian #influenza A viruses from #air sampled at live #poultry #markets in #China, 2014 and 2015 (@eurosurveillanc, abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Eurosurveillance, Volume 21, Issue 35, 01 September 2016  / Surveillance and outbreak report

Isolation of H5N6, H7N9 and H9N2 avian influenza A viruses from air sampled at live poultry markets in China, 2014 and 2015

J Zhou 1 2 , J Wu 2 3 , X Zeng 2 3 , G Huang 3 , L Zou 3 , Y Song 3 , D Gopinath 1 , X Zhang 3 , M Kang 3 , J Lin 3 , BJ Cowling 1 , WG Lindsley 4 , C Ke 3 , JSM Peiris 1 , H Yen 1

Author affiliations: 1. School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China; 2. These authors contributed equally to this work; 3. Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China; 4. Allergy and Clinical Immunology Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, West Virginia, United States

Correspondence: Hui-Ling Yen (hyen@hku.hk)

Citation style for this article: Zhou J, Wu J, Zeng X, Huang G, Zou L, Song Y, Gopinath D, Zhang X, Kang M, Lin J, Cowling BJ, Lindsley WG, Ke C, Peiris JSM, Yen H. Isolation of H5N6, H7N9 and H9N2 avian influenza A viruses from air sampled at live poultry markets in China, 2014 and 2015. Euro Surveill. 2016;21(35):pii=30331. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.35.30331

Received:17 February 2016; Accepted:00 June 2016



Zoonotic infections by avian influenza viruses occur at the human–poultry interface, but the modes of transmission have not been fully investigated. We assessed the potential for airborne and fomite transmission at live poultry markets in Guangzhou city and in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), China, during 2014 and 2015. Viral genome and infectious avian influenza A viruses of H5N6, H7N9, and H9N2 subtypes were detected predominantly from particles larger or equal to 1 μm in diameter in the air sampled with cyclone-based bioaerosol samplers at the live poultry markets in Guangzhou. Influenza A(H9N2) viruses were ubiquitously isolated every month during the study period from air and environmental swabs, and different lineages of H9N2 virus were isolated from markets where chickens and minor land-based poultry were sold. The use of de-feathering devices increased the quantity of virus-laden airborne particles while market closure reduced the amount of such particles. The results highlight the possibility of airborne transmission of avian influenza viruses among poultry or from poultry to humans within such settings. This may explain epidemiological observations in which some patients with H7N9 infection reported being in markets but no direct contact with live poultry or poultry stalls.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Avian Influenza; H5N6; H7N9; H9N2; Avian Influenza; Poultry; China.


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Giuseppe Michieli

I am an Italian blogger, active since 2005 with main focus on emerging infectious diseases such as avian influenza, SARS, antibiotics resistance, and many other global Health issues. Other fields of interest are: climate change, global warming, geological and biological sciences. My activity consists mainly in collection and analysis of news, public services updates, confronting sources and making decision about what are the 'signals' of an impending crisis (an outbreak, for example). When a signal is detected, I follow traces during the entire course of an event. I started in 2005 my blog ''A TIME'S MEMORY'', now with more than 40,000 posts and 3 millions of web interactions. Subsequently I added an Italian Language blog, then discontinued because of very low traffic and interest. I contributed for seven years to a public forum (FluTrackers.com) in the midst of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014, I left the site to continue alone my data tracking job.