Modest #Waning of #Influenza #Vaccine #Efficacy and #Antibody #Titers During the 2007–2008 Influenza Season (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Modest Waning of Influenza Vaccine Efficacy and Antibody Titers During the 2007–2008 Influenza Season

Joshua G. Petrie1, Suzanne E. Ohmit1, Rachel Truscon1, Emileigh Johnson1, Thomas M. Braun2, Min Z. Levine3, Maryna C. Eichelberger4 and Arnold S. Monto1

Author Affiliations: 1Department of Epidemiology; 2Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor; 3Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; 4Division of Viral Products, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland

Correspondence: J. G. Petrie, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Hts, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (

Presented in part: IDWeek 2015, San Diega, California, 7–11 October 2015. Poster 1915.




Antibody titers decrease with time following influenza vaccination, raising concerns that vaccine efficacy might wane. However, the relationship between time since vaccination and protection is unclear.


Time-varying vaccine efficacy (VE[t]) was examined in healthy adult participants (age range, 18–49 years) in a placebo-controlled trial of inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) and live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) performed during the 2007–2008 influenza season. Symptomatic respiratory illnesses were laboratory-confirmed as influenza. VE(t) was estimated by fitting a smooth function based on residuals from Cox proportional hazards models. Subjects had blood samples collected immediately prior to vaccination, 30 days after vaccination, and at the end of the influenza season for testing by hemagglutination inhibition and neuraminidase inhibition assays.


Overall efficacy was 70% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50%–82%) for IIV and 38% (95% CI, 5%–59%) for LAIV. Statistically significant waning was detected for IIV (P = .03) but not LAIV (P = .37); however, IIV remained significantly efficacious until data became sparse at the end of the season. Similarly, antibody titers against influenza virus hemagglutinin and neuraminidase significantly decreased over the season among IIV recipients.


Both vaccines were efficacious but LAIV less so. IIV efficacy decreased slowly over time, but the vaccine remained significantly efficacious for the majority of the season.

Key words: influenza – influenza vaccine – efficacy – waning – hemagglutinin – neuraminidase – antibody persistence – longevity of antibody – serologic assays – immune correlates

10.1093/infdis/jiw10410.1093/infdis/jiw106 Received December 22, 2015.

Accepted January 26, 2016.

© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Seasonal Influenza; Vaccines.


Published by

Giuseppe Michieli

I am an Italian blogger, active since 2005 with main focus on emerging infectious diseases such as avian influenza, SARS, antibiotics resistance, and many other global Health issues. Other fields of interest are: climate change, global warming, geological and biological sciences. My activity consists mainly in collection and analysis of news, public services updates, confronting sources and making decision about what are the 'signals' of an impending crisis (an outbreak, for example). When a signal is detected, I follow traces during the entire course of an event. I started in 2005 my blog ''A TIME'S MEMORY'', now with more than 40,000 posts and 3 millions of web interactions. Subsequently I added an Italian Language blog, then discontinued because of very low traffic and interest. I contributed for seven years to a public forum ( in the midst of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014, I left the site to continue alone my data tracking job.